Cleats are used to tie-down the rope attached to your boat while docking to keep your boat from floating away or moving around too much. There are many different types of cleats on the market but there is no "specific" difference between a boat cleat and dock cleat. However, most people use stainless steel or chrome cleats on their boat and galvanized steel on their dock.
The galvanized steel cleats look more raw, they're heavier but are far-less expensive than stainless, therefore people prefer to use them on their docks. Stainless steel and chrome are much more attractive looking, so people use them on their boats. All of them perform the same task and are equally as durable.
Chocks or Bow Chocks are attached to the bow of your boat and are used as a guide for your rope line and to keep your rope from chaffing against the sides of your boat. They can be used while docked at a boat dock or mooring offshore.